Minimizing the Casting Defects in High Pressure Die Casting Using Taguchi Analysis


1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wah Engineering College, University of Wah, Wah Cantt 47040, Pakistan

2 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wah Engineering College, University of Wah, Wah Cantt 47040,Pakistan

3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan

4 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Air University Islamabad, Aerospace & Aviation Campus, Kamra 43570, Pakistan

AbstractHigh-Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) is one of the major production processes of automotive industry, widely used to manufacture geometrically complex nonferrous castings. The mechanical strength and microstructure of HPDC-manufactured products changes with variation in several process control parameters such as injection pressure, molten temperature, 1st and 2nd stage plunger velocity, cooling temperature, etc. Since these process parameters directly affect casting quality, their optimum combination is needed to maximize the productivity of process and minimize casting defects such as porosity, pinholes, blowholes, inclusions, etc. Hence, to tackle this problem, an approach is presented in this paper that minimizes the major casting defect, i.e., porosity, in the HPDC process by optimizing controlling parameters through Design of Experiments (DOE) in combination with a Taguchi Analysis. The results obtained showed that cooling time, injection pressure, and 2nd stage plunger velocity have a major influence on the response factor (density of the cast part). It was also concluded that, by using a 178 bar injection pressure, 665 °C molten temperature, 5 second cooling time, 210 °C mold temperature, 0.20 m·s−1 1st stage plunger velocity, and 6.0 m·s−1 2nd stage plunger velocity, the rejection rate of the selected part due to porosity was reduced by 61%.


고압 다이 캐스팅 (HPDC)은 기하학적으로 복잡한 비철 주조를 제조하는데 널리 사용되는 자동차 산업의 주요 생산 공정 중 하나입니다. HPDC 제조 제품의 기계적 강도 및 미세 구조는 사출 압력, 용융 온도, 1 단계 및 2 단계 플런저 속도, 냉각 온도 등과 같은 여러 공정 제어 매개 변수의 변화에 ​​따라 변경됩니다.

이러한 공정 매개 변수는 주조 품질에 직접적인 영향을 미치므로 최적의 조합 공정의 생산성을 극대화하고 다공성, 핀홀, 블로우 홀, 개재물 등과 같은 주조 결함을 최소화하기 위해 필요합니다.

따라서 이 문제를 해결하기 위해 본 논문에서는 주요 주조 결함, 즉 다공성을 최소화하는 접근법을 제시합니다. Taguchi 분석과 결합된 실험 설계 (DOE)를 통해 제어 매개 변수를 최적화하여 HPDC 프로세스. 얻은 결과는 냉각 시간, 사출 압력 및 2 단계 플런저 속도가 응답 계수 (주조 부품의 밀도)에 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났습니다.

또한 사출 압력 178bar, 용융 온도 665 ° C, 냉각 시간 5 초, 금형 온도 210 ° C, 1 단계 플런저 속도 0.20m · s-1, 2 단계 6.0m · s-1을 사용하여 결론을 내렸습니다. 스테이지 플런저 속도, 다공성으로 인한 선택된 부품의 거부율이 61 % 감소했습니다.


High pressure die casting, porosity, Design of Experiment, optimization, casting defects

Figure 1. Crank case specimen produced with the HPDC process.
Figure 1. Crank case specimen produced with the HPDC process.
Figure 2. Casting defects found in the crank case: (a) pinhole and (b) porosity.
Figure 2. Casting defects found in the crank case: (a) pinhole and (b) porosity.
Figure 3. Pareto chart of the defects.
Figure 3. Pareto chart of the defects.
Figure 4. Cause and Effect Diagram
Figure 4. Cause and Effect Diagram
Figure 5. Response graph of means against the selected input parameters.
Figure 5. Response graph of means against the selected input parameters.


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