Energy efficiency of smelting of scrap aluminium in HPDC facilities

So-Yeon Yoo1,2, Ahrom Ryu1,2, Min-Seok Jeon3, Dongkyun Kim4, Kiwon Hong4, Sahn Nahm2, and Ji-Won Choi1,5,+


The aluminium industry is anticipated to witness a surge in demand, with projections of a two to three-fold increase by 2050. Meeting environmental objectives and addressing the growing emphasis on sustainability from both the industry and consumers seeking eco-friendly products present significant challenges. Energy efficiency will be crucial in addressing these concerns. While primary aluminium production consumes the majority of energy in the industry, the die-casting sector, as an energy-intensive segment, offers opportunities for enhancing energy efficiency. In house aluminium smelting in high-pressure die-casting (HPDC) foundries, primarily employing gas-fired shaft furnaces with preheating for improved energy efficiency, is a significant energy user. This research examines energy efficiency in High-Pressure Die Casting (HPDC) foundries, particularly in-house aluminium smelting. Utilizing literature reviews and expert interviews, the study reveals efficient technologies, drivers and barriers to energy efficiency, and the importance of sustainability. The current absence of well-defined Best Available Techniques (BAT) and the absence of validated claims by manufacturers in the HPDC sector emphasize the urgent need for extensive research and empirical verification. The results from this study show that using gas-fired shaft furnaces is the optimal choice for the next decade, with waste heat recovery as the primary energy efficiency method, supplemented by the implementation of energy management systems and strategies. Induction furnaces may emerge as a viable future technology, contingent on significant electricity network expansion and low energy prices.

Key words

high pressure die casting, HPDC, energy efficiency, cast house remelting, internal aluminium scrap, melting furnace, melting and holding furnace, drivers, barriers

Kaolinite and SiO2 ink coating fracture surface EDS & SEM images.
Kaolinite and SiO2 ink coating fracture surface EDS & SEM images.


[1] W. J. Joost, “Reducing Vehicle Weight and Improving U.S.
Energy Efficiency Using Integrated Computational Materials Engineering”, JOM-J Miner. Metal M., Vol. 64, pp.
1032-1038, 2012.
[2] W. Zhang and J. Xu, “Advanced lightweight materials for Automobiles: A”, Mater. Des., Vol. 221, pp. 110994(1)-110994(20), 2022.
[3] S. Funke and P. Plotz, “A comparison of different means to increase daily range of electric vehicles – the potential of battery sizing increased vehicle efficiency and charging infrastructure”, IEEE Vehicle Power and Propulsion Conf.
(VPPC), Karlsruhe, pp. 1-6, 2014.
[4] M. Delogua, L. Zanchia, C.A. Dattiloa, and M. Pierini, “Innovative composites and hybrid materials for electric vehicles lightweight design in a sustainability perspective”, Mater. Today Comm., Vol. 13, pp. 192-209, 2017.
[5] L. Nicoletti, A. Romano, A. König, P. Köhler, M. Heinrich, and M. Lienkamp, “An Estimation of the Lightweight Potential of Battery Electric Vehicles”, Energies, Vol. 14, No. 15, pp. 4655(1)-4655(29), 2021.
[6] F. Liu, Z Fan, X, Liu, Y, Huang, and P. Jiang, “Effect of Surface Coating Strengthening on Humidity Resistance of Sodium Silicate Bonded Sand Cured by Microwave Heating”, Mater. Manuf. Process, Vol. 31, pp. 1639-1642, 2016.
[7] L. Zhang, L. Zhang, and Y. Li, “Effect of kaolin on tensile strength and humidity resistance of a water-soluble potassium carbonate sand core”, Res. Dev. China Foundry, Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 15-21, 2016.
[8] S. Tu, F. Liu, G. Li, W. Jiang, X. Liu, and Z. Fan, “Fabrication and characterization of high-strength water-soluble composite salt core for zinc alloy die castings”, Int. J. Adv. Manuf. Technol., Vol. 95, pp. 505-512, 2018.
[9] A. Shawky, S. M. El-Sheikh, M. N. Rashed, S. M. Abdo, and T. I. El-Dosoqy, “Exfoliated kaolinite nanolayers as an alternative photocatalyst with super activity”, J. Environ.
Chem. Eng., Vol. 7, p. 103174, 2019.
[10] T. Kristóf, Z. Sarkadi, Z. Ható, and G. Rutkai, “Simulation study of intercalation complexes of kaolinite with simple amides as primary intercalation reagents”, Comput. Mater. Sci., Vol. 143, pp. 118-125, 2018.
[11] M. N. Niu and C. X. Guo, “Preparation of delaminated nano-kaolinite by intercalation of chemical assistants”, Adv.
Mater. Res., Vol. 11-12, pp. 441-444, 2006.
[12] M. Valášková, M. Rieder, V. Matějka, P. Čapková, and A.
Slíva, “Exfoliation/delamination of kaolinite by low-temperature washing of kaolinite–urea intercalates”, Appl. Clay Sci., Vol. 35, pp. 108-118, 2007